Pre-transfusion management of children with severe malarial anaemia: a randomised controlled trial of intravascular volume expansion
Symptomatic severe malarial anaemia (SMA) has a high fatality rate of 30-40%; most deaths occur in children awaiting blood transfusion. Blood transfusion services in most of Africa are not capable of delivering adequate supplies of safe blood in a timely manner to critically ill children with SMA. Contrary to widely held belief, hypovolaemia, rather than heart failure, has emerged as a common complication in such children. We examined the safety of pre-transfusion management (PTM) by volume expansion, aimed at stabilizing children and obviating the urgency for blood transfusion. Kenyan children with severe falciparum anaemia (haemoglobin <5 g/dl) and respiratory distress were randomly assigned to 20 ml/kg of 4.5% albumin or 0.9% saline or maintenance only (control) while awaiting blood transfusion. PTM was apparently safe since it did not lead to the development of pulmonary oedema or other adverse events. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome [mean percentage reduction in base excess between admission and 8 h (95% confidence interval)] between the control group 42% (19-66%) albumin group 44% (32-57%) and saline group 36% (16-57%); adjusted analysis of variance F=0.31, P=0.7. However, the number of children requiring emergency interventions was significantly greater in the control group, four of 18 (22%) than the saline group 0 of 20 (P=0.03). We have established the safety of this PTM in children with SMA whilst awaiting blood transfusion at a hospital with an adequate blood-banking program. The impact on mortality should be assessed where blood transfusion services are unable to supply emergency transfusions.