Neonatal invasive candidiasis in low-and-middle-income countries: data from the NeoOBS study

Cook A, Ferreras-Antolin L, Adhisivam B, Ballot D, Berkley JA, Bernaschi P, Carvalheiro CG, Chaikittisuk N, Chen Y, Chibabhai V, Chitkara S, Chiurchiu S, Chorafa E, Dien TM, Dramowski A, de Matos SF, Feng J, Jarovsky D, Kaur R, Khamjakkaew W, Laoyookhong P, Machanja E, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Namiiro F, Natraj G, Naziat H, Ngoc HTB, Ondongo-Ezhet C, Preedisripipat K, Rahman H, Riddell A, Roilides E, Russell N, Sastry AS, Tasimwa HB, Tongzhen J, Wadula J, Wang Y, Whitelaw A, Wu D, Yadav V, Yang G, Stohr W, Bielicki JA, Ellis S, Warris A, Heath PT, Sharland M
Med Mycol. 2023;61

Permenent descriptor

Neonatal invasive candidiasis (NIC) has significant morbidity and mortality. Reports have shown a different profile of those neonates affected with NIC and of fluconazole resistant Candida spp. isolates in low-and-middle-income -countries (LMICs) compared to high-income-countries (HIC). We describe the epidemiology, Candida spp. distribution, treatment and outcomes of neonates with NIC from LMICs enrolled in a global, prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study (NeoOBS) of hospitalised infants < 60 days postnatal age with sepsis (August 2018-February 2021). 127 neonates from 14 hospitals in 8 countries with Candida spp. isolated from blood culture were included. Median gestational age of affected neonates was 30 weeks (IQR: 28-34) and median birth weight was 1270 g (IQR: 990-1692). Only a minority had high risk criteria, such as being born < 28 weeks, 19% (24/127), or birth weight < 1000 g, 27% (34/127). The most common Candida species were C. albicans (n = 45, 35%), C. parapsilosis (n = 38, 30%) and Candida auris (n = 18, 14%). The majority of C. albicans isolates were fluconazole susceptible, whereas 59% of C. parapsilosis isolates were fluconazole resistant. Amphotericin B was the most common antifungal used [74% (78/105)], followed by fluconazole [22% (23/105)]. Death by day 28 post-enrolment was 22% (28/127). To our knowledge, this is the largest multi-country cohort of NIC in LMICs. Most of the neonates would not have been considered at high risk for NIC in HICs. A substantial proportion of isolates was resistant to first choice fluconazole. Understanding the burden of NIC in LMIC is essential to guide future research and treatment guidelines.Our study describes neonates from LMIC with neonatal invasive candidiasis (NIC). Most of them were outside the groups considered at high risk for NIC described in HIC. Candida spp. epidemiology was also different. The mortality was high (22%). Further research in these settings is required.eng