Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in coastal Kenya
BACKGROUND: The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from coastal Kenya. METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae sampled from eight study sites were reared to adulthood in the insectary, and 3- to 5-day-old non-blood-fed females were tested for susceptibility to permethrin, deltamethrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), fenitrothion and bendiocarb using the standard World Health Organization protocol. PCR amplification of rDNA intergenic spacers was used to identify sibling species of the An. gambiae complex. The An. gambiae (s.l.) females were further genotyped for the presence of the L1014S and L1014F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant species, accounting for 95.2% of the total collection, followed by An. gambiae (s.s.), accounting for 4.8%. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, permethrin and fenitrothion but not to bendiocarb and DDT. The L1014S kdr point mutation was detected only in An. gambiae (s.s.), at a low allelic frequency of 3.33%, and the 1014F kdr mutation was not detected in either An. gambiae (s.s.) or An. arabiensis. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates and a low level of the L1014S kdr point mutation that may partly be responsible for resistance to pyrethroids. This knowledge may inform the development of insecticide resistance management strategies along the Kenyan Coast.