Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Infections among Young Febrile Adults Evaluated for Acute HIV-1 Infection in Coastal Kenya
BACKGROUND: Fever is common among patients seeking care in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), but causes other than malaria are rarely diagnosed. We assessed dengue and chikungunya virus infections among young febrile adults evaluated for acute HIV infection (AHI) and malaria in coastal Kenya. METHODS: We tested plasma samples obtained in a cross-sectional study from febrile adult patients aged 18-35 years evaluated for AHI and malaria at urgent care seeking at seven health facilities in coastal Kenya in 2014-2015. Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were amplified using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We conducted logistic regression analyses to determine independent predictors of dengue virus infection. RESULTS: 489 samples that were negative for both AHI and malaria were tested, of which 43 (8.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-11.7) were positive for DENV infection. No participant was positive for CHIKV infection. DENV infections were associated with clinic visits in the rainy season (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.5) and evaluation at a private health facility (AOR 5.2, 95% CI: 2.0-13.1) or research health facility (AOR = 25.6, 95% CI: 8.9-73.2) instead of a public health facility. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of DENV infections was found in febrile young adult patients evaluated for AHI. Our data suggests that DENV, along with AHI and malaria, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient seeking care for fever in coastal Kenya.