Mortality from external causes in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites
Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SM, Alam N, Diboulo E, Niamba L, Sie A, Lankoande B, Millogo R, Soura AB, Bonfoh B, Kone S, Ngoran EK, Utzinger J, Ashebir Y, Melaku YA, Weldearegawi B, Gomez P, Jasseh M, Azongo D, Oduro A, Wak G, Wontuo P, Attaa-Pomaa M, Gyapong M, Manyeh AK, Kant S, Misra P, Rai SK, Juvekar S, Patil R, Wahab A, Wilopo S, Bauni E, Mochamah G, Ndila C, Williams TN, Khaggayi C, Nyaguara A, Obor D, Odhiambo FO, Ezeh A, Oti S, Wamukoya M, Chihana M, Crampin A, Collinson MA, Kabudula CW, Wagner R, Herbst K, Mossong J, Emina JB, Sankoh OA, Byass P
Glob Health Action. 2014;7
BACKGROUND: Mortality from external causes, of all kinds, is an important component of overall mortality on a global basis. However, these deaths, like others in Africa and Asia, are often not counted or documented on an individual basis. Overviews of the state of external cause mortality in Africa and Asia are therefore based on uncertain information. The INDEPTH Network maintains longitudinal surveillance, including cause of death, at population sites across Africa and Asia, which offers important opportunities to document external cause mortality at the population level across a range of settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of mortality from external causes at INDEPTH Network sites across Africa and Asia, according to the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy (VA) cause categories. DESIGN: All deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provide person-time denominators for mortality rates. RESULTS: A total of 5,884 deaths due to external causes were documented over 11,828,253 person-years. Approximately one-quarter of those deaths were to children younger than 15 years. Causes of death were dominated by childhood drowning in Bangladesh, and by transport-related deaths and intentional injuries elsewhere. Detailed mortality rates are presented by cause of death, age group, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of external cause mortality found here generally corresponded with expectations and other sources of information, but they fill some important gaps in population-based mortality data. They provide an important source of information to inform potentially preventive intervention designs.