HIV-1 infection in high risk men who have sex with men in Mombasa, Kenya
Sanders EJ, Graham SM, Okuku HS, van der Elst EM, Muhaari A, Davies A, Peshu N, Price M, McClelland RS, Smith AD
BACKGROUND: The role of homosexuality and anal sex practices in the African HIV -1 epidemic is not well described. We aimed to assess the risk factors for prevalent HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) to guide HIV-1 prevention efforts. METHODS: Socio-behavioural characteristics, signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and serological evidence of HIV-1 were determined for 285 MSM at enrolment into a vaccine preparedness cohort study. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess risk factors for prevalent HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: HIV-1 prevalence was 43.0% [49/114, 95% confidence interval (CI), 34-52%] for men who reported sex with men exclusively (MSME), and 12.3% (21/171, 95% CI, 7-17%) for men who reported sex with both men and women (MSMW). Eighty-six (75%) MSME and 69 (40%) MSMW reported recent receptive anal sex. Among 174 MSM sexually active in the last week, 44% reported no use of condoms with casual partners. In the previous 3 months, 210 MSM (74%) reported payment for sex, and most clients (93%) were local residents. Prevalent HIV-1 infection was associated with recent receptive anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.1; 95% CI, 2.4-16], exclusive sex with men (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 2.3-17), and increasing age (OR, 1.1 per year; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12). Only four MSM reported injecting drug use. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HIV-1 in Kenyan MSM is probably attributable to unprotected receptive anal sex. There is an urgent need for HIV-1 prevention programmes to deliver targeted risk-reduction interventions and STD services to MSM in Kenya.