Simultaneous pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) assessment of ampicillin and gentamicin in the treatment of neonatal sepsis

Gastine S, Obiero C, Kane Z, Williams P, Readman J, Murunga S, Thitiri J, Ellis S, Correia E, Nyaoke B, Kipper K, van den Anker J, Sharland M, Berkley JA, Standing JF
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022;77

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OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and gentamicin, currently the WHO standard of care for treating neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data were collected in 59 neonates receiving ampicillin and gentamicin for suspected or proven sepsis in the NeoFosfo trial (NCT03453177). A panel of 23 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from neonates with sepsis, resistant to either ampicillin, gentamicin or both, were tested for susceptibility using chequerboards. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling and simulations were used to compare single-agent (EUCAST MIC) and combination (chequerboard MIC) target attainment with standard dosing regimens. RESULTS: A model was established that simultaneously estimated parameters of a one-compartment ampicillin model and a two-compartment gentamicin model. A common clearance for both drugs was used (6.89 L/h/70 kg) relating to glomerular filtration (CLGFR), with an additional clearance term added for ampicillin (5.3 L/h/70 kg). Covariate modelling included a priori allometric weight and post-menstrual age scaling of clearance. Further covariate relationships on renal clearance were postnatal age and serum creatinine.Simulation-based PKPD assessments suggest good Gram-positive (MIC