Quantifying the intensity of permethrin insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes in western Kenya

Omondi S, Mukabana WR, Ochomo E, Muchoki M, Kemei B, Mbogo C, Bayoh N
Parasit Vectors. 2017;10

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BACKGROUND: The development and spread of resistance among local vectors to the major classes of insecticides used in Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) poses a major challenge to malaria vector control programs worldwide. The main methods of evaluating insecticide resistance in malaria vectors are the WHO tube bioassay and CDC bottle assays, with their weakness being determination of resistance at a fixed dose for variable populations. The CDC bottle assay using different insecticide dosages has proved applicable in ascertaining the intensity of resistance. METHODS: We determined the status and intensity of permethrin resistance and investigated the efficacy of commonly used LLINs (PermaNet(R) 2.0, PermaNet(R) 3.0 and Olyset(R)) against 3-5 day-old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes from four sub-counties; Teso, Bondo, Rachuonyo and Nyando in western Kenya. Knockdown was assessed to 4 doses of permethrin; 1x (21.5 mug/ml), 2x (43 mug/ml), 5x (107.5 mug/ml) and 10x (215 mug/ml) using CDC bottle assays. RESULTS: Mortality for 0.75% permethrin ranged from 23.5% to 96.1% in the WHO tube assay. Intensity of permethrin resistance was highest in Barkanyango Bondo, with 84% knockdown at the 30 min diagnostic time when exposed to the 10x dose. When exposed to the LLINs, mortality ranged between- 0-39% for Olyset(R), 12-88% for PermaNet(R) 2.0 and 26-89% for PermaNet(R) 3.0. The efficacy of nets was reduced in Bondo and Teso. Results from this study show that there was confirmed resistance in all the sites; however, intensity assays were able to differentiate Bondo and Teso as the sites with the highest levels of resistance, which coincidentally were the two sub-counties with reduced net efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: There was a reduced efficacy of nets in areas with high resistance portraying that at certain intensities of resistance, vector control using LLINs may be compromised. It is necessary to incorporate intensity assays in order to determine the extent of threat that resistance poses to malaria control.