Presence of the knockdown resistance mutation, Vgsc-1014F in Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis in western Kenya

Ochomo E, Subramaniam K, Kemei B, Rippon E, Bayoh NM, Kamau L, Atieli F, Vulule JM, Ouma C, Gimnig J, Donnelly MJ, Mbogo C
Parasit Vectors. 2015;8

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INTRODUCTION: The voltage gated sodium channel mutation Vgsc-1014S (kdr-east) was first reported in Kenya in 2000 and has since been observed to occur at high frequencies in the local Anopheles gambiae s.s. POPULATION: The mutation Vgsc-1014F has never been reported from An. gambiae Complex complex mosquitoes in Kenya. FINDINGS: Molecularly confirmed An. gambiae s.s. (hereafter An. gambiae) and An. arabiensis collected from 4 different parts of western Kenya were genotyped for kdr from 2011 to 2013. Vgsc-1014F was observed to have emerged, apparently, simultaneously in both An. gambiae and An. arabiensis in 2012. A portion of the samples were submitted for sequencing in order to confirm the Vgsc-1014F genotyping results. The resulting sequence data were deposited in GenBank (Accession numbers: KR867642-KR867651, KT758295-KT758303). A single Vgsc-1014F haplotype was observed suggesting, a common origin in both species. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of Vgsc-1014F in Kenya. Based on our samples, the mutation is present in low frequencies in both An. gambiae and An. arabiensis. It is important that we start monitoring relative frequencies of the two kdr genes so that we can determine their relative importance in an area of high insecticide treated net ownership.