Accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen tests for rapid mapping of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections in Southern Sudan

Ashton RA, Stewart BT, Petty N, Lado M, Finn T, Brooker S, Kolaczinski JH
Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine dipstick test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium alongside an integrated rapid mapping survey in Southern Sudan. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 373 children aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Of these 26.0% were infected with S. haematobium and 24.5% were infected with S. mansoni, as identified by urine filtration or single Kato-Katz thick smear, respectively. The CCA performed moderately in detecting S. mansoni, with sensitivity of 89.1% and specificity of 74.2%, and poorly in detecting S. haematobium infections, with a sensitivity of 36.8% and specificity of 78.9%. This may be a slight underestimate of true CCA accuracy, since only single stool and urine samples were examined by microscopy. The true 'gold standard' for comparison would have been the collection of multiple stool samples over consecutive days. CONCLUSION: The poor CCA accuracy for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis means that this test is currently not suitable for rapid mapping of schistosomiasis in areas where both S. mansoni and S. haematobium may be endemic.