In individuals with HIV-1 infection, depletion of CD4+ T cells is often accompanied by a malfunction of CD8+ T cells that are persistently activated and/or exhausted. While the dynamics and correlates of CD4 counts have been well documented, the same does not apply to CD8 counts. Here, we examined the CD8 counts in a cohort of 497 Africans with primary HIV-1 infection evaluated in monthly to quarterly follow-up visits for up to 3 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Statistical models revealed that (i) CD8 counts were relatively steady in the 3- to 36-month period of infection and similar between men and women; (ii) neither geography nor heterogeneity in the HIV-1 set-point viral load could account for the roughly 10-fold range of CD8 counts in the cohort (P > 0.25 in all tests); and (iii) factors independently associated with relatively high CD8 counts included demographics (age =>
Prentice, H. A., Lu, H., Price, M. A., Kamali, A., Karita, E., Lakhi, S., Sanders, E. J., Anzala, O., Allen, S., Goepfert, P. A., Hunter, E., Gilmour, J., Tang, J.